Principles Of Diagnosis Of Unani System Of Medicine

principles of diagnosis

Usül-e-Tashkhish (Principles of Diagnosis)

Principles Of Diagnosis: It also has the conceptual framework to use modern medical diagnostic means in some cases where there is required. Pathology by its macroscopic method.

History taking and Physical examination (Rüdad o Mu’ayana)

Pulse:

Pulse is examined by ten features viz. Size, Strength, Speed, Consistency (elasticity). Fulines Temperature, Rate, Frequency (constancy), Regularity and Rhythm. It should be noted that pulse has a rhythm similar to that of music. Unani scholars have described pulse under several headings such as normal pulse, faction governing the pulse, effects of patient factors such as sex, age, temperament and season, region and country.

principles of diagnosis

Physical examination of Urine:

Physical examination of urine helps a lot in the diagnosis, not only of uro-genital diseases bur other systemic disorders also. For this following aspects are taken into account:

(i) Quantity (Miqdar)
(ii) Colour (Lawn)
(iii) Odour (Rä’iha)
(iv) Consistency (Qiwām)
(v) Foam or Froth (Zubda)
(vi) Clearness and Turbidity (Saflă o Kudūrat)
(vii) Sediments (Rasüb)

Physical examination of Stool:

The physical examination of stool also helps in the diagnosis of various diseases Color, quantity, consistency and the presence of foreign bodies are observed during physical examination of stool.
Now a day, the following medical technologies are applied for proper diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

Medical Technologies for diagnosis and treatment

Symptoms or treat ailments to improve their practice from better diagnosis, surgical procedures, and improved patient care.

Information Technology and Medicine:

New medical technologies are bringing telecommunications. It is not uncommon in today’s world for patients to hold video conferences with physicians to save time and money normally spent on traveling to another geographic location or send health information instantaneously to any specialist or doctor in the world.

Medical Equipment Technology:

Patient when the surgery is performed.

Technology and Medical Research:

Pathological Investigations for disease Diagnosis

Different types of technological tools are used to diagnose diseases. Such as blood tests, Stool tests, Urine tests, use of Xary machine, ECG, USG, Endoscopy and so on.

Blood test: Blood testing is required for the following circumstances: This can also maximize the nutrients us put in our body and more.

To reduce risk of disease or complications: Regular blood tests can catch the warning signs of almost any disease early. Many heart, lung, and kidney conditions can be diagnosed using blood tests.10 important blood tests are;

Complete blood count:

A routine complete blood count (CBC) test checks for levels of 10 different components of every major cell in our blood: white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets.

Here’s the typical range of results:
Component                                                                    Normal range
Red Blood Cells                                          Men: 4.32-5.72 million cells/mcL; Women: 3.90-5.03 million cells/mcL
White Blood Cells                                                   3,500 to 10,500 cells/mcL
Platelets                                                                     150,000 to 450,000/mcL
Hemoglobin                                              Men: 13.5-17.5 grams/deciliter (g/dL); Women: 12.0-15.5 g/dL
Hematocrit                                                Men: 38.8-50.0 percent; Women: 34.9-44.5 percent
Abnormal levels of these components may indicate: Iron deficiency
Bone marrow issues
Tissue inflammation
Infection
Heart conditions
Cancer
Based on results, a doctor will order follow-up tests to confirm abnormal levels and a possible diagnosis.

Basic metabolic panel

A basic metabolic panel (BMP) checks for levels of certain compounds in the blood, such as:
Test name                                                                                        Normal range
Calcium                                                                                        8.5-10.5 mg/dL
Magnessium                                                                               1.5-3.0 mg/dL
Potassium                                                                                   3.5-5.0 mmol/L
Sodium                                                                                       135-145 mmol/L
Phosphorus                                                                               2.0-4.5~mg/dL
Carbon dioxide                                                                       18\cdot30~mEq/L
Chloride                                                                                    95-105 mmol/L
Bicarbonate                                                                               22-33 mmol/L
Glucose                                                                                     65-100~mg/dI
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)                                                8-20~mg/

                                               Creatinine                                                                                0.6-1.5 mg/dL.
This test requires fasting for at least eight hours before blood is drawn. A doctor will perform follow-up tests to diagnose any of these conditions.

Complete metabolic panel

A complete metabolic panel (CMP) includes all the measurements of a BMP as well as additional proteins and substances related to liver function:
Test name                                                                              Normal range
i. Total protein                                                                      6.7-8.6~g/dL
ii. Albumin                                                                             3.0-5.5 g/dL
iii. Globulin                                                                            2.0-3.5~g/dL
iv. A:G Ratio                                                                          1.5-2.5: 1
v. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)                                           35-115~IU/L
vi. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)                                  0-50 IU/L
vii. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)                            0-45 IU/L
viii. Bilirubin                                                                         0-1.5~mg/dL

High levels                                                                              Low levels

ALP

1.Bile duet blockage                                                  1. Bone metabolism disorders
2.Cirrhosis                                                                  2. Heart surgery
3. Ggallbladder inflammation                                 3. Malnourish
4. Gallstones                                                               4. Mentzinc deficiency
5. Hepatitis
6. Paget’s disease

ALT

1. Cirrhosis.
2. Hepatitis
3. Liver cancer                                                              Considered normal
4. Liver damage

AST
1. Cirrhosis
2. Heart conditions                                                    Considered normal
3. Hhepatitis
4. Mmononucleosis
5. Pancreatitis

Bilirubin
1. Abnormal red blood cell destruction (hemolysis)
2. Adverse medication reactions
3. Bile duct blockage                                                            Not a concern
4. Gilbert’s syndrome
5. Hepatitis

Lipid panel:

The lipid panel test checks levels of two types of cholesterol Trusted Source:
i. High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL), or “good” cholesterol
ii. Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL), or “bad” cholesterol

LDL is “bad” because it can cause plaque to develop in arteries, increasing risk of heart disease. Fasting is needed for at least 8 hours before this test.
Here are the ranges for each type:
High                                                                                           Low
HDL >60 mg/dL                                            men: <40 mg/dL; women: < 50 mg/dL
LDL>160 mg/dL                                                         <100 mg/dL
Normal levels can also vary by age.

Thyroid panel:

A thyroid panel, or thyroid function test, checks how well thyroid is producing and reacting to certain hormones, such as:
1. Triiodothyronine (T3): Along with T4, this regulates heart rate and body temperature.
2. T3 resin uptake (RU): This measures how well a hormone called thyroxin-binding globulin is binding.
3. Thyroxine (T4): Along with T3, this regulates metabolism and growth.
4. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): This helps regulate the levels of hormones.
Thyroid, a tiny gland in our neck, helps regulate bodily functions like mood, energy level, and overall metabolism.
Here are normal results:
1. T3:100-200 nanograms per deciliter of blood (ng/dL)
2. T3RU:depends on T3 levels (will be low if T3 levels are high, and vice versa)
3. T4: 5.0-12.0 micrograms per deciliter (µg/dL)
4. TSH:0.4-4.0 milli-international units per liter of blood (mIU/L)

Enzyme markers:

Enzymes are proteins that help our body accomplish certain chemical processes, such as breaking down food and clotting blood. They’re used throughout our body for many vital functions.

Common enzymes tested include:
1.Creatine phosphokinase (CPK-1): This is found in our lungs and brain. High levels can indicate brain injuries or cancer.
ii. CPK-2 (CK-MB): These enzymes are found in our heart. They often increase in our blood after a heart attack or other heart injury.
iii. CPK-3: These enzymes are also found in our heart. They often result from muscle inflammation, injury, or intense exercise.
iv. Troponin: This is a heart enzyme that can leak into your blood and results from heart injury.

Normal range for enzyme listed

i.CPK-1: About 200 units per liter (U/L)
ii. CPK-2: 5-25 international units per liter (IU/L)
iii. CPK-3: About 200 U/L
iv. Troponin: < 0.02 ng/mL

Sexually transmitted disease:

i. Chlamydia
ii. Gonorrhea
iii. Herpes
IV .HIV
V.Syphilis
Blood tests aren’t always accurate right after contracting an infection.

Coagulation panel:

Coagulation tests measure how well our blood clots and how long it takes for our blood to clot.

Clotting is a crucial process that helps our stop bleeding after a cut or wound. But a clot in a vein or artery can be deadly, blocking blood flow to our brain, heart, or lungs and causing heart attack or strokes.
Coagulation test results vary based on our health and any underlying conditions that may affect clotting.

Results from this test can be used to diagnose:

i. Acute myeloid leukemia
ii. Excessive bleeding (hemophilia)
iii. Thrombosis
iv. Liver conditions
v. Vitamin K deficiency

DHEA-sulfate serum test

The dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) hormone comes from adrenal glands.

The dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) deficiency which can be caused by-

i. Type 2 diabetes
ii. Kidney disease
iii. Anorexia nervosa
iv. AIDS
High levels in men or women can result from:
i. Cancer or tumor in adrenal glands
ii. Early onset of puberty from congenital adrenal hyperplasia
iii. Abnormal genital development
iv. Polycystic ovary syndrome (in women)

C-reactive protein test

C-reactive protein (CRP) is made by our liver when tissues in your body are inflamed.

i. Artery inflammation
ii. Infection
iii. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
iv. Heart disease
v. Rheumatoid arthritis
vi. Lupus
vii. Cancer
The higher the level in our results, the higher our risk of heart disease:

i. <1 mg/L: Low risk
ii. 1-2.9 mg/L: Intermediate risk
iii. 3 mg/L: High risk
iv. > 10 mg/L: Extremely high risk, and further testing should be done to diagnose high levels of inflammation in your body.

Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) Test:

it’s often done along with other blood tests, such as a creatinine blood test, to make a proper diagnosis.

i. Liver damage
ii. Malnutrition
ii. Poor circulation
iv. Dehydration
v. Urinary tract obstruction
vi. Congestive heart failure
vi. Gastrointestinal bleeding

Important to note that each laboratory has different ranges for what’s normal. Higher BUN levels can indicate:
i. Heart disease
ii. Congestive heart failure
iii. A recent heart attack
iv. Gastrointestinal bleeding
v. Dehydration
vi. High protein levels
vii. Kidney disease
viii. Kidney failure
ix. Dehydration
x. Obstruction in the urinary tract
xi. Stress
xii. Shock

Blood Tests to Diagnose Arthritis:

Doctor will use several different blood tests to help diagnose with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and
other inflammatory conditions.

Rheumatoid Factor (RF): Rheumatoid factor is a group of proteins tthat our body creates when our immune system attacks healthy tissue.
Normal: 0-20 u/mL (units per milliliter of blood). It means; about 70% to 90% of people with a high reading have RA. But people who don’t have RA can have rheumatoid factor. In general, if we have RA but don’t have high RF, our disease will be less severe. RF levels may stay high even if we go into remission.
Other conditions might have:
i. A chronic infection
ii. Bacterial endocarditis
iii. Cancer
iv. Diabetes
v. Lupus
vi. Sjögren’s syndrome
Other tests are:
1. Anti-cyclic Citrullinated Peptide (anti-CCP)
2. rythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
3. C-Reactive Protein (CRP)
4. Antinuclear Antibody (ANA)
5. HLA-B27
6. Complete Blood Count
7. Creatine Kinase (CK)
8. Semen analysis
9. Male and female hormone test
10. CSF analysis

Stool Examinations:

Microbiology tests:

can also be identified. Viruses such as rotavirus can also be found in stools.
Chemical tests:

Stool analysis is done to:

cramping, and fever.
Screen for colon cancer by checking for hidden (occult) blood.

Look for the cause of an infection

Urine analysis:

A urinalysis is a test of urine.

For example, a urinary tract infection can make urine look cloudy instead of clear.

To check overall health like diabetes, kidney disease and liver disease.
To diagnose a medical condition. Doctor may suggest a urinalysis if experiencing abdominal pain, back pain, frequent or painful urination, blood in urine, or other urinary problems. To monitor a medical condition. If a patient have been diagnosed with a medical condition, such as kidney disease or a urinary tract disease, doctor may recommend a urinalysis on a regular basis to monitor the condition and treatment.

principles of diagnosis

X-rays:

X-ray is a shorthand for X-radiation. It is mostly a quick & painless procedure and a very effective way of looking at the bones and other body parts. Doctor may prescribe an X-Ray if he/she experiences prolonged explainable pain in the body, as an X-ray produces images of the affected organs, bones, and tissues of the body. Also, a chest X-Ray may be used to detect pneumonia.

1 Problems in the chest
Some kind of lung condition such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, pneumonia, and pneumothorax.
3. Heart Conditions, such as Heart Failure, etc. and for viewing its size & shape
4. To monitor progress of the chest area after a surgery
5. To find objects like coins or small pieces of metal in the lungs
6. Bone Fractures
7. Tooth Complications, such as Loose Teeth and Dental Abscesses
8. Scoliosis (Irregular Curving of the Spine)
9. Cancerous & Non-Cancerous Bone Tumors
10. Dysphagia (Difficulty or Discomfort in Swallowing)
11. Breast Cancer
Types of X-rays:
Medical science recognizes different types of X-rays. These are as follows:
Standard Computed Tomography:

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