In the Grip of Malankhulya: A Descent into Melancholy


Derived from the Greek words “melan” (black) and “chole” (bile), melancholia carries a similar meaning to malankhulya. However, its usage has evolved over time.

What is Malankhulya/Melancholia?

Malankhulya/Melancholia: The term melancholia is one of the oldest terms we use in psychology. means “black bile” in Greek. This is fitting because Hippocrates believed that an excess of black bile, one of what he labeled “The Four Humours (Akhlat),” caused melancholia.

The symptoms he categorized under melancholia are nearly identical to the symptoms we use today, including fear, not wanting to eat, insomnia, restlessness, agitation and sadness. In modern times, it came to be described as “endogenous depression” (coming from within) in contrast to depression stemming in response to external stressors.

Malancholia is a significant mental health condition characterized by persistent and intense feelings of sadness and hopelessness. People with Malancholia often lose interest in activities they once enjoyed and have trouble getting through the day.


The severity and type of Malancholia symptoms vary greatly from person to person. Some people experience traditional symptoms of Malancholia, while others develop additional syndromes, such as melancholia and catatonia. Most symptoms can be managed with treatment, which may consist of medication and psycotherapy.


According to akhlat
Malancholia 4 types-
i.Souday damavi
ii.Souday balgami iii.Souday sofravi
iv.Souday soudavi


The start of these episodes is usually not caused by a specific event and even when something good happens the individual’s mood does not improve, not even for a short time.
>For burning of akhlat/body fluid
>Weakness of demag/brain
>Excessive mental pressure
>Some diseases syphilis, gonorrhea,piles etc
>Excessive masturbation

Excessive sexual activity

>Irregular meanstruation
>Insomnia and chronic indigestion/IBS
>Su-e mejaj e kabed or tehal
>Drug addiction
>Long time hardworking
>Imbalance of black bile/sawda

People at Increased Risk for Melancholia

>Older people
>Inpatients >Those who experience psychotic features

Alamat/Symptoms of Melancholic Depression:

People with melancholic depression may experience symptoms of Malancholia, such as:
>Loss of thinking power
>Thinking bad about other’s
>Patient’s good thinking convart to worried
>Presence of Sawdavi (black bile) symptoms in the patient>Persistent feelings of extreme sadness for a long period of time
>Loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyable
>Having a lack of energy or feeling fatigued
>Feeling anxious or irritable
>Eating too much or too little
>Sleeping too much or too little
>Experiencing changes in body movement
>Difficulty concentrating, making decisions and remembering things >Thinking or talking about death or suicide
>Suicide attempt

Also Include-

>Loss of pleasure in all or most daily activities
>Lack of reactivity to positive news and events
>Deep feelings of despair and worthlessness
>Sleep disruptions
>Significant weight loss
>Persistent feeling of excessive or inappropriate guilt Symptoms of Malancholia that are worse in the morning
Melancholic features are more likely to occur in people who frequently experience severe symptoms of Malancholia. They are also seen more often in those who have Malancholia with psychotic features.

Usle Tashkhish/Diagnosing Melancholic

To make this diagnosis, a doctor/physician will usually ask some of the following questions: >Do you have difficulty getting out of bed and getting started in the morning?
>Are your symptoms generally worse in the morning or in the evening?
>How do you sleep?
>Has there been a change in your sleep patterns?
>What does a typical day look like for you?
>Has your daily routine changed recently? Do you enjoy the same things you once did? >What, if anything improves your mood?
>Do you have more trouble concentrating than usual?

Usle Elaz/Treatment plan:

>Apply munzij(Coctive) and mushil (Purgative) of sawda/black bile
>Then medication according to underlying couse
>Should be apply medication of tobrid or bring coldness
>Apply fosod(If need)
>Apply musakken types of medicine To be remove constipation >In case of female- to bring normal meanstrual cycle
>Apply mukavviye demag types of medicine.



After treated by munzij and mushil.
1. Treatment according to Hakim azmal khan-
Jowhor Mohra 25 mg
Tabascir 25 mg
Marwarid 25 mg , Khamira Abresham shira unnab woala 5 gm
Maul zuban 50ml
Sharbat Unnab 25 ml
All of daily 2 times
Rawgon Gul 25 ml
Eat at night
2. Nuskha/Formula: 1
Movez Munaqqa (Without seeds) 80 gm , Gule Bonofsha 28 gm
Gule Shurkho 28 gm
Ustukhuddus 20 gm
Aslusshus/Zostimodhu 20 gm
Porsiosha/ Hongsopody 20 gm
Ud solib 20 gm
Gawjoban 20 gm
Badian/Mouri 20 gm, Tokhme korfos 20 gm
Sapesthan 20 gm
Sugar- ar – as per requirement.
As joshanda/ decoction (According to Unani pharmacy).
4 tsf +4 tsf +4 tsf After meal
Or, Nuskha/Formula: 2
Gawjaban 30 gm
Gule Gawjaban 20 gm
Kashniji/Dhonia 20 gm, Abresham Muqarraj 20 gm
Bahmon Surkho 20 gm
Bahmon Sofed 20 gm
Burada Sondal Sofed 20 gm
Tokhme Balangu 20 gm
Tokhme Rayhan 20 gm
Badoranjbua 20 gm
As joshanda/ decoction (According to Unani pharmacy). 4 tsf+4 tsf+4 tsf – After meal
3. Khamira Gawzaban
Unnab-5 pec,
Sharbat banafsha 25 ml.
Tokhme rayhan-7 gm
At a time. Daily 2 times.
Sharbat Neelofar
4 tsf+4tsf+4tsf – After meal
Sikanjabeen Buzuri 4 tsf+4tsf+4tsf- After meal
4. For external uses
Rowghan Kadu
Rowghan Nilufar
Apply in head as cooling agent (Any one).
5. For Hypertention
Habb-e Fishar
Qurs Shafi After meal
Dwaush Shefa
Dwaush Shefa After meal
6. For weakness of demag/Brain
Etrifal muqavvi dimagh
1 tsf+0+1 tsf
Khamira gawzaban ambary After meal
1 tsf+0+1 tsf


It can show people how to:
>Adjust to a crisis or other stressful event
>Replace negative beliefs and behaviors with positive, healthy ones
>Improve communication skills
>Cope with challenges and solve problems
>Increase self-esteem
>Regain a sense of satisfaction and control in life
Treatment can be according to physician’s knowledge & experience and also patient condition.

Principals of Treatment of Unani System of Medicine

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