Basic information of Unani treatment

Basic information of Unani treatment

What is Unani Treatment?

Unani treatment focuses on restoring balance to the four humors through a variety of methods, including:

Dietary therapy: This involves eating foods that are believed to balance the humors. For example, someone with too much phlegm might be advised to eat foods that are drying and warming, such as ginger or garlic.

Herbal medicine: Unani medicine makes extensive use of herbal remedies. These remedies are believed to have specific effects on the humors.

Lifestyle modifications: This may include things like exercise, massage, and steam baths.

Unani physicians follow Preventive as well as Curative treatment measures.

Preventive Treatment:

In Unani Medical science, preventive measure can play an important role for maintaining good health. For this we have to follow some factors that are essential for our daily life. These factors are six in number and also known as Asbb-e-Sittah Zaruriyah(Six Essential Factors/causes). They are as follows;

  • Al Hawa al Muhit (Atmospheric air)
  • Al Makul wa’l Masrub (Foods and Drinks)
  • Al Herkat wa’l Sukun al Badaniyat(Physical Movement and Repose)
  • Al Herkat wa’l Sukun al Nafsaniyat(Mental or Psychic Movement and Repose)
  • Al Naum wa’l Yaqzah(Sleep and Wakefulness)
  • Al Istifragh wa’l Ihtibas (Evacuation and Retention

Al Hawa al Muhit (Atmospheric air):

All forms of life depend on atmospheric air. Human beings need a continuous supply of air to exist (3] because air is a vital rukn of ruh (pneuma) and bodies. Ruh posses quwa (faculties). Quwa and af’al (functions) are complementary to each other. Therefore, moderate(mutadil) ruh leads the normal functioning of quwa and afal. The two main functions of air are:

This modification is attained by mean sof inspiration or inhalation through the lungs.

Tanqiya (purification) is for expulsion of wasteproductofruh.Thispurificationisattainedbymeansofexpirationorexhalation.

Both of these functions occur when the air is in pure form. When it is contaminated, it leads the suemizaj (mal temperament) of ruh. Therefore, the quality of breathing air is supposed to directly in fluence the mizaj(temperament)of ruh and thus, either health is maintained or lost.

For this the father of modern medicine, Avicenna, the famous Unani physician, says that the change of environment relieves the patients of many diseases. He has also emphasized the need of fresh air, houses with proper ventilation, playgrounds and gardens.

Al Makul wa’l Masrub (Foods and Drinks):

Makul and Mashrub are taken for  the preservation of ealth and foraid of tabiyat but the aim is different in abnormal circumstances. The foods and drinks act upon the body in three ways: by their kaifiyat(quality), by their madda (matter) and by their surat-e-naueia (morph) or viseversa. There fore, foods and drinks with the help of their quality, madda and morph are believed to ensure healthy state,if taken judiciously. Foods are categories mainly into three categories such asghiza latif (light foods) produces thin blood; ghiza kaseef (heavy foods) produces thick blood and ghiza mutadil (moderatefoods).They are further subdivided according to the properties either rich or poor in nutrition and of bad chyme or of good chyme. When the individual is taking a balance diet their health is maintained other wise,they may suffer from malnutrition or other types of abnormalities. In relation to food intake Galen says that food intake should be in accordance with the digestive tracts or on severe thirst; this may prove beneficial to digestive process. The water intake with foods either in little or in more quantity is a very common among the people due to lack of knowledge. By making those aware about its effects on digestive process one can minimize the terrible outcome. The individual must follow their own menu and shifting from one menu to another one is not allowed abruptly because tabiyat is not habituated to digest. Therefore, any intake of food against the individual routine may become harmful, unless their tabiyat become accustomed to digest. Thus too much intake of food may create obesity and inadequate diet create underweight.

Avicenna, also observed that dirt and polluted water were carriers of disease and emphasized the need of keeping water & food free from all impurities.

Al Herkat wa’l Sukun al Badaniyat (Physical Movement and Repose):

Lack of physical activity becomes a risk factor for many diseases such as heart attack, anxiety, depression, type 2 diabetes and risk of obesity etc. There fore, we should maintain the role of physical activity and the bad effects of sedentary life. The effect of harkat (movement) on human body depends on the following types of movement:

  • Vigorous or Mild
  • Prolonged or Moderate
  • Accompanied by rest or not

What ever an individual executes the movements result in liberation of hararat(heat).This hararat stimulate the hararat-e-ghareeziyah(innateheat)and dissolve the waste product of the body. In Unani medicine, it is believed that hararat is the tool of all quwa (faculties) especially, quwatabaiyah(vegetative faculties). Vegetative faculties perform the action of processing in food, metabolism and finally, expel the waste materials out of the body. If these  waste  material  sare getting accumulated and not expelled out of the body regularly, it leads the extinction of hararat-e-ghareeziyah. So, the hararat liberated by physical activity stimulate hararat-e-ghareeziyah and finally, quwa performs the appropriate action either for assimilation or elimination.

Rest, after movement is very essential for health preservation. Because regular movement with out rest result in dissolution of ratubat (fluid) and finally, the innate heat becomes affected. Once the in Nate heat becomes sub normal, then or mal metabolic process can not occur. Rest fourth excellent process of digestion which results information of good quality of humour and health depends on humoral balance. But excessing anyone or in both produces baroodat(cold)which affects the action of faculties and finally, the function of the body becomes  abnormal. Therefore, the balanced rest and movement exert the optimistic effects on individual health.

For this, to maintain perfect health and trim body, exercise and rest are essential.

Al Herkat wa’l Sukun al Nafsaniyat (Mental or Psychic Movement and Repose):

The psychic movement and rest influence the human health by different ways. In relation to psychic movement, Unani scholars explained different faculties which govern the internal and external functions of the body. They have categorized the faculties as:

  • Quwwat-e-Mudarikah (SensoryFaculties)
  • Quwwat-e-Muhrrikah(MotorFaculties).

These two faculties are responsible for coordinated psychi movement and thus, all the psychological functions occur normally. All psychic states are followed by both internal or external movemen to fruh (pneuma), khun(blood)and hararat-e-ghareeziyah, The excessive psychic movement leads the dissolution of ruh and finally, faculties become debilitated. Therefore, functions of the body become abnormal. After the psychic movement, rest is needed for gaining the substitute for the lost substances. This clearly indicates that the psychic movements cannot be performed continuously. Body is also influenced by psychic states such as anger, sorrow, fear, worry, happiness etc. The emotional state of a person plays an important role in health maintenance because the negative emotions make a person physically sick and positive

emotions boost the immune system. Therefore, balance with emotions, psychic rest and movement is essential for preservation of existing health or for restoration, if health islost,

Al Naum wa’l Yaqzah (Sleep and Wakefulness):

Sleep and wakefulness are an essential factor of life. Sleep is analogous to rest and wakefulness to movement. The normal physical and psychosocial functions depend on adequate sleep. An eminent Unani scholar Zakariya Razi delineates that eight hours of sleep is very essential for health. He also says that sleep strengthens the vital faculty, pneuma and promotes digestion by retaining hararat-e-ghareeziyah. Sleep also work as a great restorer of lost substances during day time. Therefore, proper sleep prepares the individual for next day performance by energy conservation. When sleep meets a substance ready for digestion and nuzj(coction),internist into the blood. If sleep discovers emptiness or a khilt (humour) which is not primed to digestive faculty it disperses it. Excessive sleep causes dullness of the psychic faculties, cold diseases and heaviness of head. On the other hand, excessive wakefulness produces dryness, impairs digestion etc. Now days, the life becomes so busy that the person does not have time to sleep adequately. This imbalance in routine surely affects the health and may become a major cause for health  deterioration.

For this normal sleep and wakefulness are essential for health.

Al Istifragh wa’l Ihtibas (Evacuation and Retention):

Unani scholars believed that balanced between istifragh and ihtibas of substance is very important for maintenance of health. The word istifraghst and for the elimination of unnecessary or waste materials out of the body and retention of the substances which must be eliminated causes certain diseases. In the same way, elimination of the substances which must be retained causes the abnormal condition.

Elimination is carried through normal channels such as passage of urine, stools, sweat, menstrual blood etc. but excess

excretion results in abnormal condition. The excess loss of fluid, salts, and nutrients in the stools, causes abnormalities. The excessive elimination of any matteral ways causes the coldness and dryness of temperament, directly. Therefore, if elimination and retention are balanced and take place the time when they are needed, they are beneficial and maintain health.

All the abovementioned factors are physical or external factors. An individual by maintaining equilibrium in the serf actors can achieve the aim of fitness for along period. Asbab-e-Sitta Zaruriyya either directly or indirectly influences the body. So proper and normal functioning of the excretory process must be ensured in order to maintain perfect health.

In conclusion it can be said that nobody could escape from the above mentioned six factors during their life.

These factors are necessary for the existence of balance living. Any imbalance in the six essential factors may predispose majority of life style diseases. The physicians while treating any patient should always look for any imbalance in essential factors and advice the appropriate regimen, as per requirement of body e.g. avoid heavy spicy food; avoid water drinking during meal or just after meal, etc. Awareness about the role of these factors on human health among the mass people is very essential.

Curative Treatment:

Unani Medicine has the following modes of curative treatment depending upon the nature of ailment and its cause.

  • Ilaz-bil-Tadabeer (Regimental Medicine)
  • Ilaz-bil-Geza (Dietotherapy)
  • Ilaz-bil-Dawa (Pharmacotherapy)
  • Ilaz bi’l-Yad (Surgical and parasurgical procedures)
  • Ilaz Nafsäni (Psychiatric treatment)
  • Ilaz Ruhani (Spiritual treatment)

Ilaz-bil-tadabeer (Regimental Medicine)

The Unani Physician attempts to use simple physical means to cure a disease, but for certain specific and complicated diseases they apply special techniques, some of which are as follows:

Hijama (Cupping):

It is one of the regiminal medical procedure and Arabic term for dry and wet cupping (where blood is drawn by vacuum from a small skin incision) for therapeutic purposes. fever, constipation and diarrhea, chest pain, asthma etc.

Unani treatment

Types of Hijama:Hijama (cupping) is of three types:

  • Hijama bila shurt (Dry cupping)
  • Hijama bil shurt (Wet cupping)
  • Hijama Mutaharikah (Dry massage cupping)

Ilaj Bil Abar (Acupuncture/Suchi Vead):

It is a form of traditional Ayurvedic medicine, incorporated in Unani system of Medicine as some of other things, being a characteristic of the Unani system of medicine involving inserting of thin needles into the body at specific points. reproductive problems etc.

Unani treatment

It is used;

  • To bring down hypertension
  • Stimulation of metabolic processes
  • Correction of hot material in temperament.

Idraare Baul (Diuresis):

This method is used in cases of diseases of urinary tract, the heart, lung and liver.

Hammam (Medicated Steam And Bath Therapy):

It acts as a detoxification procedure, rejuvenates the body, used for many chronic metabolize, skin, musculoskeletal and neurological diseases. It improves strength, immunity, metabolism, muscle nutrition and blood circulation.

Dalak (Medical Massage):

Manual kneading or manipulating the soft tissues to relieve pain, discomfort, stress and to promote health and wellness is called as ‘Dalaq’ or ‘Medical Massage’ of proper health. The word

“Massage’ is derived from the Arabic word- Mass (to touch), or from the Greek word-

Amal-e-Kai (Cauterization):

By this, the pathogenic matters which are attached to structures are removed or resolved.

organ from transferring to the other organs.

Unani treatment

Unani treatment

Ishaal (Purgation):

This method has a resolving anti-spasmodic and detoxicating effect.

Amal e Qai (Omitting):

It is used to cure headache, migraine, tonsillitis, bronchopneumonia and also bronchial asthma etc

Riyaazat (Exercise):

Physical exercise has great importance in treatment of certain diseases as well as in maintenance of a healthy condition of an individual.

Irsale Alaq (Leech or Hirudo therapy):

Certain conditions have been laid down for applying this method. It is a method of blood-letting which involves the withdrawal of blood in a considerable quantity from the body with the help of medical Leeches. The therapeutic application of this method of treatment is known from the time of extreme antiquity and is still alive in present health scenario. The important advantage of leech therapy is that it may be advised on those areas of the body where other processes of blood-letting like venesuction and cupping are not possible.

Unani treatment

Pashoya (Footbath):

Footbath therapy assists in removing toxicity & mucous from the body, helps in psychosomatic and other disorders.

Shamoom (Aroma therapy):

Aroma therapy is the practice of using natural oils to enhance psychological & physical wellbeing.

Abzan (Sits Bath):

It is used to relieve discomfort and pain in the lower part of the body like hemorrhoids, anal fissure, IBS, rectal surgery, infection of bladder, prostate or vagina ete

Ilaj-bil-Giza (Dietotherapy):

Ilaj-bil-Dawa (Pharmacotherapy):

3d Group: Comprises moist drugs, lubricants, etc.

Coctives are used to prepare matter for excretion through purging or other means of excretion(Detoxifying). This method has no parallel in any other system.

route of drug used:

route of drug are kept in mind.

High potency drugs or severe purgatives and emetics are avoided in summer and severe winter.

  • Route of drugs used:
  • Forms and shapes of drugs used:

Khameerajat, Lauooq, Perfumes, etc, are used to achieve the desired effect.

  • Compounding and correction of harmful effects of drugs:

Drugs are compounded for the following purposes:

  • To potentiate the drug effect (Synergism)
  • For sharp diffusion of the drug
  • For slow diffusion of the drug
  • For preservation of active principles
  • To increase the quantity of a drug

Substantiate of drugs

laj bi’l-Yad (Surgical and parasurgical procedures):

Ilaj Nafsäni (Psychiatric treatment):

The Unani System of Medicine treats psychiatric diseases by using drugs, ilaj-bil- tadabeer (Regimental Medicine), modifying mind-related processes like sleep and psycho.

Ilaj Ruhani (Spiritual Treatment):

General Information of Unani System of Medicine

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